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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作(zuo)者: 人气:1899

高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心是(shi)一种(zhong)可(ke)以(yi)对加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件进(jin)行高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一种(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具能够如此快(kuai)速(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)除(chu)了因为高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精密度和成熟的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术之外更(geng)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)还是(shi)得(de)利与其优秀的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)系统(tong),在当前的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机床(chuang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)行业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)为视线高(gao)(gao)速(su)稳定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)精度加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)运行快(kuai)速(su)且(qie)功能强大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)计算机数控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)是(shi)必不(bu)可(ke)少,需(xu)要注(zhu)意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)必须(xu)能够足够快(kuai)地处(chu)理数控(kong)(kong)程序代码段以(yi)保持(chi)程序中(zhong)(zhong)规定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)给速(su)度。

 

高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)在(zai)实际(ji)运行中(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)用于测量一(yi)次(ci)工(gong)作台(tai)的实际(ji)位置并发出一(yi)次(ci)进给(ji)命(ming)令所用的时间(jian),对于伺服周期和代码段(duan)处理时间(jian)是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的两个重要参数及其概念(nian)。计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)处理并完(wan)成一(yi)条加(jia)工(gong)指令代码段(duan)规定的位移所花(hua)费的时间(jian)。 计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的这两个参数对于高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)来说(shuo)非常重要,因为他们将决定机(ji)(ji)床的加(jia)工(gong)速(su)度和加(jia)工(gong)精度。在(zai)这里,精度意味着在(zai)采用线性(xing)插补时,用直(zhi)线段(duan)来逼近零件轮(lun)廊所允许的最大误差。

 

我们可以(yi)(yi)看到在(zai)(zai)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统必(bi)(bi)须保(bao)证形成精(jing)确(que)的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji),另外,在(zai)(zai)用直线段(duan)来逼近零(ling)件轮(lun)廊时(shi)(shi)(shi),为了(le)保(bao)证精(jing)度,直线段(duan)势必(bi)(bi)很短(duan),从而使得(de)零(ling)件程(cheng)序变得(de)很长(zhang)。基于此,计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统需要(yao)(yao)一个(ge)(ge)32位的(de)微处(chu)理(li)(li)器,有时(shi)(shi)(shi)甚至需要(yao)(yao)多个(ge)(ge)微处(chu)理(li)(li)器,以(yi)(yi)完成高(gao)速(su)插补(bu)、高(gao)速(su)段(duan)处(chu)理(li)(li)和(he)良好的(de)待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为了(le)能(neng)预先知道刀具路径以(yi)(yi)避免(mian)在(zai)(zai)拐(guai)角 处(chu)出现(xian)事故,计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统最好是(shi)具有较多段(duan)加(jia)(jia)工(gong) NC代码(ma)轨(gui)迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)的(de)能(neng)力,这与(yu)司机必(bi)(bi)须有良好的(de)视(shi)野 范围才能(neng)高(gao)速(su)驾驶一辆汽车有些类似。 目前所有较高(gao)水(shui)平的(de)计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统都具有待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)能(neng)力。所谓待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统在(zai)(zai)控(kong)(kong)制加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)同时(shi)(shi)(shi)扫描待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)代码(ma),看刀具路径是(shi)否(fou)有方(fang)向上的(de)突然改变,如果计算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统发(fa)现(xian)前面必(bi)(bi)须改变进给方(fang)向时(shi)(shi)(shi),自动执(zhi)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)减速(su)程(cheng)序,以(yi)(yi)避免(mian)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心偏(pian)离程(cheng)序中规(gui)定的(de)切削加(jia)(jia)工(gong)路径。


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